The Basics of the Blue Dot and Preservation
January 23, 2015
The earth has been in discussion since the beginning of man. Questions of flat or round, does the earth orbit the sun or is the earth the center of the universe, and how did life start? As humans use the finite resources of the earth, many scientists are struggling to find the answer and what effect the inhabitants have on the planet.
According to Arnett (2015) website, All planets “orbit in the same direction (counter-clockwise looking down from above the Sun’s north pole); all but Venus, Uranus and Pluto also rotate in that same sense” (Orbits, para. 1).
Approximately four and a half billion years ago the earth was born. The Earth rotates counter-clockwise like the sun as the earth also rotates on its axis. The earth takes approximately 24 hours to complete a full cycle. As the earth ages, the rotation has slowed down. Scientist believes the earth has been steadily slowing down ever since its creation. In the early years of Earth, the rotation was faster and caused the earth’s shape to be more of an elliptical. As earth’s age increases, the planet becomes more round. The new form creates issues with the earth’s crust on the planet, forcing the tectonic plates to move, directly changing the surface of mother earth, and its oceans. As the face of the earth’s surface changes, a significant impact on our atmosphere occurs.
According to Duckeck (2015), “In science, especially if it is a descriptive science which tries to explore nature, it is a good idea to be careful and keep in mind the difference between facts and theories. Still, plate tectonics is the most important theory in geology and – after half a century of scientific research in this field – a very well supported one.” (Plate Tectonics, para. 2).
The Ocean Floor
According to Alden, A. (2015), “The crust is not the same thing as the plates of plate tectonics. Plates are thicker than the crust and consist of the crust and the shallow mantle just beneath it; the combination is stiff and brittle and is called the lithosphere” (Crusts and Plates).
Natural events: the New Madrid Seismic Zone
NMSZ is described by New Madrid Seismic Zone (2012), as “made up of reactivated faults that formed when what is now North America began to split or rift apart during the breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia in the Neoproterozoic Era about 750 million years ago” (Geology).
Deep under the failed rift system is the scars of the split, leaving the area weakened. The rift could have had a profound change to the ocean floors observed today, but another rift started. Approximately 200 million years ago a new rift system called the Reelfoot rift, started. The Reelfoot rift was also a failed rift system formed in the same way as the breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia. Although, both of the rift systems are long gone, the combination of the two rifts left the area weaker than any other area in North America. This area is extremely prone to extensive devastation as the lands change from uplifting and sinking of the area. The sediment, which covers the old rifts system, makes a relatively small quake into a large disaster area as it the earthquake becomes magnified in its effects. Contributing factors of stress to the area came from the last Ice Age. As the ice melted, the lithosphere began mixing with the cold water. The mixing of the lithosphere made ingenious rock sink deeper underneath the fault area. The deep rock may also be melting into a more plastic state as the lithosphere heats the thinner crust allowing more heat to transfer into the already weakened area. The oceanic plate is another contributing for the stress the New Madrid Seismic Zone.
According to the Forte (2007) website “localization arises because of structural variability in the Farallon slab and the low viscosity of the sub-lithospheric upper mantle, and it represents a heretofore unrecognized and possibly significant driving mechanism for the enigmatic intraplate seismicity” (Descent of the ancient Farallon slab drives localized mantle flow below the New Madrid seismic zone).
The old oceanic plate is driving its self under the North American plate in the Utah region during the break up of Pangaea area.
According to Nielsen, O.H. (2015), “central part of the Farallon Plate completely subducted under the southwestern part of the North American Plate. Around 23 million years ago, the remnant of the Farallon Plate split into the Juan de Fuca Plate subducting under the northern part of the North American Plate, the Cocos Plate subducting under Central America and the Nazca Plate subducting under the South American Plate” (para. 1).
The New Madrid Seismic Zone is a unique on earth, where so many traumas from many areas of land and ocean have affected one small place. Billions of years in design, the world waits for The New Madrid Seismic Zone to become a huge sinkhole. Today scientist describes future events in this rejoin would be catastrophic. The great rise and sink of the Ozarks in 1812 is nothing to what could be waiting for mankind in the near future.
Compare and contrast
Continental drift is a theory based on parts of the earth’s crust moves on the earth’s liquid core. This theory is very plausible based on fossil records. Tectonic plates are another theory, which suggests continents move about from one area to another colliding, separating, and rubbing together. This activity creates our ocean floors, mountains, and islands. As void forms, mantel fills the area. As voids close up, plates disappear, and mountains form. Both theories work together like a living puzzle.
Chemical and physical properties of water
According to Encyclopedia Britannica (2015), “Concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen are generally low in the photic zone because they are rapidly taken up by marine organisms. The highest concentrations of these nutrients generally are found below 500 meters, a result of the decay of organisms (Physical and chemical properties of seawater)”.
Seawater to fresh water
Skeletal components of silicon and calcium are also found from the decaying organisms, deep in the oceans waters. The atmosphere affects the life found in the sea. Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere feeds the plant life found in the sea. In direct response to the amount of carbon dioxide intake by marine plants, a release of oxygen is accounted for in the atmosphere. Various toxins are also found in the ocean from dumping of garbage.
According to Raunekk (2015), “Generally water is boiled at 100 degree Celsius, but in freshwater generator it is done at around 60-70 degree Celsius. For this purpose, educators or air ejectors are use. Eductors reduces the chamber’s pressure to such a point that water starts boiling at a temperature of 60-70 degrees Celsius (Single stage fresh water generator)”.
With the use of a flow regulator, a person can control the flow of the sea water into the system to help with efficiency or variations of concentration of salt in the sea water. As fresh water is collected in the condenser, it is pumped out and checked with a salinometer to confirm the water is indeed fresh water. A more advanced and efficient manner of the same idea is with a two-stage generator. As hot water enters a pressurized chamber of a two-stage generator, the water would immediately convert into steam. The process is faster than a single stage generator because the need to boil water is gone. By controlling the flow, the pressure and water temperature would lead to a more rapid method of creating fresh drinking water out of seawater.
Globalization and Finite
According to Agriculture and Consumer Protection (2015), Water is a finite resource: there are 1400 million cubic kilometers on earth, circulating through the hydrological cycle. Nearly all of this is salt water and most of the rest is frozen or underground. Only one-hundredth of 1 % of the world’s water is readily available for human use (Where is the water, para. 1).
Water is everywhere, and though there doesn’t seem to be a genuine end to water. Water is becoming more poisonous. As humans abuse the right to use and abuse water, people are finding through research; all life on earth suffers the abusive behaviors. Humans are demanding more meat, bigger automobiles, and more power to live a comfortable lifestyle. Livestock is the earth’s largest pollutant. The livestock industry not only is the greatest source of methane gas polluting the air supply, but also machines and transportation causes the higher use of petroleum products such as gas, rubber, and plastics. Researchers have found these products in our stream, co2 in the air from unburned gasses, but also in the ever-growing landfills where we bury our wrongdoings. Human life on earth cannot seem to understand if a person likes a clean the inside of their home, why it wouldn’t be important to clean the outdoors. Some people feel the need to discard their waste and garbage into the water. This type of ridiculous behavior pollutes our oceans and underground water sources. Co2 thickens our atmosphere trapping the sun’s rays between our earth and the atmosphere, causing higher temperatures. The higher temperatures cause extinctions on land and in the waters. With larger amounts of decay in earth’s waters, the aquatic life becomes ill from the lack oxygen in the water for the fish to breath. The modern traits of people are to detach their wasteful behavior by throwing out the unused, discarded products into the trash. The trash is just the beginning. Trash sooner or later is transported to a landfill somewhere usually outside the town to be buried and forgotten. As the methane gas of all the products decompose into the air, the chemicals leech into the ground waters commonly used for drinking water.
History of the problem
Current level of concern
Jaehnig (2015), A three-year study of 43 subwatersheds within the Lower Kaskaskia River basin has revealed that those in urban areas contain on a day-to-day basis significantly higher levels of both E. coli and phosphorus, a major fertilizer component, than do the largely rural, agricultural subwatersheds (Carbondale, ill., para. 2).
Within the Lower Kaskaskia River basin, 29 other watersheds in the countryside were also tested. The reports found the watersheds did have lower readings than those in the city, but in no way were they in good shape. Illinois is scrambling to find ways to deal with the issue. A similar case of this in Milwaukee wasn’t considered as early as Illinois problem. In 1993, high Cryptosporidium levels in Milwaukee’s drinking water supply sickened more than 400,000 residents. According to Natural resource defense council (2015), in 1996 the Centers for Disease Control established a link between spontaneous abortions and high nitrate levels in Indiana drinking water wells located close to feedlots (Livestock pollution and public health).
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